Hyppolyta - The Amazon Queen
Do you strive to catalogue and sort your belongings? Do you own many books?
Hyppolyta is a rather elegant way to sort your books: Using the
Amazon Webservices (AWS), you only need a barcode scanner,
Perl, some CPAN modules and
wget to gather
information about all sorts of products: books, DVDs, CDs etc.
Sounds interesting? Read the article in my blog for more details or see below for the very detailed documentation.
You can find the program on my GitHub repository.
I am an avid reader. In fact, most of the space in my shelves is used by books. Books that cover many different topics: Maths, Physics, Programming, Fantasy, Sci-Fi, Dramas/Plays, Poems, Classics…
Recently, I became aware of the fact that this collection had to be sorted and catalogued, somehow. This would enable me to sort out the duplicate books (A general problem when one has “some” books: One is given books by other people as a present, but most of them are already in the personal collection.) and prevent getting duplicates. Moreover, I said to myself:
If I catalogue all books that are stored somewhere in our house, I could easily spot the literary gems that are present in some dark box, unbeknownst to me and the others.
To solve this problem, several subproblems had to be taken care of: What book data do I need? How do I get this data? Where do I store the data? Thus, the problem was well-defined and I could begin looking for solutions.
In Germany, most of the books that are published are assigned a unique number, the ISBN. On newer books, this number is printed on the back of the book as a barcode, allowing booksellers to get information (price etc.) about the book as quickly as possible.
For many years, the ISBN was a 10-digit number: 9 digits for the code itself and one for the checksum. However, since the beginning of 2007 (European) books are required to carry a 13-digit ISBN on their backs: The EAN. EAN is a much more general code that is, as the name implies, used for other product categories, such as DVDs, CDs or food.
Luckily (for me), the 13-digit ISBNs are a subset of the 13-digit EANs (Actually, the EAN comes in two flavours: 13 digit or 8 digits. The EAN-8 is commonly used for “smaller” items and since we are talking about catalogueing books and not about running a grocery store, I think we can gracefully ignore it.), so there would be no conversion necessary between these two codes.
Quite naturally, the thought of how to exploit this fact came almost immediately to me. Given a list of EANs (I will now use this word regardless of whether I am writing about ISBNs or EANs.), I could get all the data I need if I had a source that allowed me to search for EANs and return information about the item.
Since I have not much money to spend on this project, I decided to query the most comprehensive (and free!) database of books I knew: The online bookstore “amazon.com”.
This task was easier than I expected it to be: amazon.com provides developers with (free) access to the “Amazon E-Commerce Service” (ECS). Being an amazon.com customer anyway, after reading the documentation, I decided to sign up for it and give it a try.
Before doing anything else, I first had to find a way of how to
read EANs. I was not willing to enter all EANs manually. But what
was good for booksellers should work for me as well. So I bought an
OVOX CCD-800 USB Barcode Scanner.
This device is truly perfectly suited for my needs: It reads EAN and UPC barcodes in all flavours (and a whole lot more barcodes which I will probably never encounter in my life) fast and reliably (if the barcode can be read, it will be read properly without any errors), it can be configured nicely (by scanning barcodes, of course, which is a mild case of bootstrapping if you ask me) and it identifies itself as a normal USB keyboard, hence allowing me to use it with FreeBSD (or Windows).
I configured the scanner to read the barcode, print it with
alphanumeric characters and add a newline afterwards. This meant I
vim, the best text editor, and scan every book I
encountered. The EANs would be added to a list, which I would
process later on.
Hyppolyta, the Amazon queen
After I knew what had to be done, I could begin implementing a program that would to the following:
- Accept a list of EANs as an input file.
- Request further information (Title, Author(s)…) via Amazon’s ECS.
- Save information about the items in a sensible and practical format.
The name “Hyppolyta” seemed very apt for this program.
Besides wondering how anyone could name a program “Hyppolyta”, you may have noticed that I wrote ‘items’ instead of ‘books’. This was a perfectly sane decision: Since amazon.com offers a lot more products besides books, I wanted my program to be as general as possible in order to get information about all sorts of products that can be identified by EANs. This resulted in me catalogueing my audio CDs and DVDs, too (but this is an entirely different story. Let’s focus here.).
Hyppolyta is written in Perl. With lots of modules and its general flexibility, this language seemed most suited for my task. Not to mention the fact that it is one of the languages that is officially supported by the ECS API.
I am by no means a Perl wizard. In fact, it was my first project that was done in Perl. I am sure that the code could be implemented much more smoothly, therefore I encourage you to rewrite it if you consider it too offensive.
The current version of Hyppolyta is able to generate CSV output.
This simple format should allow you to use your data in almost any
program. Just make sure that the program you are going to use for
imports is able to understand CSV data that contains the newline
character in fields! Every field is escaped by default via
Untar everything. Install
wget and place it in the path of your
Perl interpreter. Furthermore, install the following Perl modules,
if not already present:
As a last step, open
hyppolyta.pl and look for the line:
my $req_key = "[YOUR KEY]";
Add your AWS access key. If you do not have one, please register with Amazon.
The steps of a general session with Hyppolyta could be something like this:
- Go through the shelves/boxes one by one. Scan all books you encounter. I suggest sorting them before starting to scan them. For example, I tend to group them in two categories, “technical literature” versus “fiction” and scan each category in a separate text file.
You should now have a list of EANs/ISBNs. Each line does not contain any whitespaces and ends with a newline character. Start Hyppolyta from the command-line via:
./hyppolyta.pl -i <input file> -o <output file>.csv
If you do not want Hyppolyta to download images for each item, specify the
-nswitch, too. Otherwise, all available images are stored in a subdirectory depending on the search index: If the search index is
DVD, images will be stored in the folder
./dvd/. The URI of the image is set accordingly, thus allowing you to simply upload the appropriate folder to your server in order to display all DVDs. By default,
wgetis used to download the images.
Hyppolyta will now download all information about the items and store them in a CSV file.
Import the file and have fun. As always, this step is left out as an exercice to the reader.
More complex usages
To understand Hyppolyta’s configuration options you have to learn
the basics about the “Amazon E-Commerce Service” (ECS). To get data
from Amazon, an
ItemLookup request is used. This request has
several important parameters, which are preset by default when no
other options are present:
ReqEndwhich specifies the locale. Set to
deby default. You can change this via the
./hyppolyta.pl -i <input file> --locale co.uk
Valid locales are (among others):
de. Please note that not all locales share the same database. It is advisable to change the locale if an insufficient number of items has been retrieved.
IDTypethat specifies the type of the search parameters, for example ISBN (default), UPC or EAN. Actually, more options are possible, but these are not covered here.
ItemID, a list of up to 10 items of the type specified by
IDType. These are, in fact, the codes you scanned earlier. The ID type can be changed using the
./hyppolyta.pl -i upc.txt -t UPC
Not all locales support all ID types. Read the fine manual for reference purposes.
SearchIndexthat tells Amazon which part of the catalogue is to be searched. Valid values include: Books, ForeignBooks, Music, DVD. The default value is “Books”. However this implies that only books of the request’s locale are queried! That means: If the locale is set to
de(by default), books in other languages will be available only (!) by using the “ForeignBooks” search index. Specifying the search index is possible via the
./hyppolyta.pl -e -i classical_music.txt -s Music
ResponseGroup, which used by Amazon to decide what information about an items is sent back. For example: The response group
ItemAttributesreturns a lot of information about each item, including package dimensions, whereas
EditorialReviewsadds the “official” review of the item to the response (if available). More information is available in the ECS documentation.
This parameter should not be changed by the end user. Keep your hands off it unless you know what you are doing.
If available, as much as 10 items are used in one request. After
the request has been assembled, it is sent to Amazon for
processing. The response will be an XML file which is parsed by the
XML::XPath module. This is where the heart of the program lies.
To keep the program as general as possible, hashes are used
everywhere in the program. If you look at the code, you will find
two important variables:
I will now explain to you how to use these wisely.
This is a list of attributes that have to be included in every request. Each item has two subitems: First, the title/name of the attribute is specified. Then, a relative path that tells Hyppolyta where the attribute can be found in the response (just think of a tree).
The name of the item is used when the CSV header is written.
Although it is possible to use titles such as
etc., it is not prudent as it makes parsing and understanding a CSV
file much harder. You can change the names to your leisure.
NodeIterate value tells Hyppolyta wich nodes are to be used
to iterate over multiple items. In general, this is just the node
of the attribute as described in the ECS documentation. It is also
possible to add new attributes. Just make sure that the path to
NodeIterate is correct.
The value in
NodeValue tell Hyppolyta where it should look for
the actual value you want to receive. This may be different from
Furthermore, specify the flag
Output => 1 if you want Hyppolyta
to print these values every time a new item has been retrieved from
Example: Suppose we have a node called ‘Person’. This node has a child called ‘Name’. It it stored by ECS in the following way:
Person -- Name, Person -- Name, Person -- Name
In this case, we would set
NodeIterate to ‘Person’ (actually, the
whole path has to be used. But this is an example, after all) and
NodeValue to ‘Name’.
An associative array for attributes that are only requested if a
certain search index is used. The array’s key is the search index
(keep in mind that ECS is indeed case-sensitive), the value is
another hash of attributes that are requested for every item. The
syntax is the same as above (
While this may seem clumsy, it is, in fact, not, as I dare to say: People who want to organize their music collection need more information about artists etc., whereas people who want to sort their books are almost always happy to know about the author and the publisher.
If you want to add attributes, please read the ECS documentation for more information.
Use case: My collection
Let’s suppose you have your well-ordered list of ISBNs. Before doing anything else, these should be sorted according to their origin: In 13-digit ISBNs, the 4th digit will specify the origin: 4 is for Germany (or German-speaking countries), anything else for, well, another country. In 10-digit ISBNs, the origin is coded in the first number. Same game.
Use whatever you want to divide the list in two new lists (one with
the “foreign” books and one with the local ones): Write a script,
do it manually, use
At last, do two runs of Hyppolyta:
./hyppolyta.pl -i books_german.txt -o books_german.csv ./hyppolyta.pl -i books_foreign.txt -s ForeignBooks -o books_foreign.csv
The .csv files now contain data about your books. Furthermore, images for every item available should have been downloaded.